According to the 1989 Census, there are 42 tribes living in Kenya, as well as all of the non-African people groups. As such, it is difficult to make general comments about people in Kenya.
English is the official language while Kiswahili is the national language. That means that government and education are in English, while everything else tends to be in Swahili. And, in actuality, most of government is in Swahili also. In addition to these two languages, most of the people in Kenya also speak what they would call their "mother tongue" - the language that they grew up speaking. While an increasing number of city-dwellers are growing up speaking English, most rural people still speak their tribal languages when they go home. Kenya's African population is divided on three linguistic groups:-
Concentrations in three main geographical regions - Western Kenya and Lake Victoria region (Luhya, Kisii), east of Rift Valley, (Kikuyu, Embu, Kamba) and Coastal belt (Mijikenda).
Represented by the Luo, Kalenjin, Maasai and related groups. The Kalenjin linguistic group is concentrated in the area north to south and west of the central highlands, while the Luos are concentrated in the Lake Victoria Basin.
Somali speaking group occupying eastern portions of the arid and semi-arid north eastern Kenya. Rendille and Orma speaking groups occupy the north western part.
Over 30 distinct languages or dialects are spoken in Kenya.